Investigation of Temporal Trends and Spatial Patterns of Extreme Temperatures and Their Relationship to Climate Circulation Indices in Tanzania


  • Paul Limbu University of Dar es Salaam
  • Kisesa Makula University of Dar es Salaam


Spatio-temporal analysis, Extreme temperatures, Circulation indices, Trend analysis, Tanzania


This paper examined the spatial and temporal patterns of selected temperature extreme indices using the Mann-Kendall method (MK), the standard t-test, and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The relationship between extreme temperature events and climate circulation indices was analysed in Tanzania between 1983 and 2016 using data from 1961 to 2018. The results uncover a rise in the frequency and intensity of balmy days and nights across Tanzania. It suggests a significant increase in trends and the frequency of mild temperature index days and warm nights. It also indicates an increase in the trends for warm temperature indices (hottest days (TXx), coldest days (TNx), warm days (TX90p), tropical night (TR20), and Warm Spell Duration Indicator (WSDI); and a decrease in cold temperature indices (cold days (TX10p), cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TXn), and Cold Spell Duration Indicator (CSDI); which imply that the lower temperature was gradually decreasing more than in the past. The results further suggest that warm days and nights are significantly correlated with the Tropical Northern Atlantic Index (TNA), the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The circulation indices, which were found to be substantially associated with temperature extreme indices, can aid in forecasting, and may potentially serve as a foundation for future studies, particularly in the dynamics and physical mechanisms related to temperature extremes. The results presented in this paper are also vital for developing proper mitigation and adaptation measures to reduce future risks associated with extremely high-temperature events.