An Evaluation of the Impact of Urban Growth on Runoff in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria


  • T. E. Ologunorisa Federal University of Technology
  • Adebayo Eludoyin Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
  • I. Bayonle Federal University of Technology, Akure


Urban growth, Land use/cover, Curve numbers, HEC-HMS


Abeokuta is one of the urban areas in Nigeria with high cases of runoff fatalities in recent times, indicating the need for a proper understanding of prominent runoff-generating mechanisms, as well as the causative factors. Consequently, this paper, which is focused on flood-prone settlements, is aimed at providing information on the impact of change in urban land use on runoff in the study area. The specific objectives were to determine the change in average runoff in terms of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCN-CN), and to assess the impact of urban growth on runoff in the area. The SCN-CN was derived from the 30m spatial Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM). At the same time, land cover change was estimated using Landsat TM+ from 2000 and Landsat 8 OLI from 2018. Data were analysed using the Hydrologic Engineering Centre’s Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) and ArcGIS (version 10.1). The results showed a 14% increase (from 39% in 2000 to 53% in 2018) in urban areas of selected catchments; and a relative increase in average CN from 76.9 units in 2000 to 79.9 units in 2018, suggesting an increase in runoff potential relative to the increase in urban/impermeable space in the catchment. Annual discharge depth increased from 891.84mm to 956.9mm, while peak discharge increased from 161.9m3 /s to 196.2m3 /s. Runoff in the study area tends to exhibit spatial variability that is similar to the pattern exhibited by built-up areas across the study area, suggesting that the development of built-up areas can explain runoff exacerbation in part of the area. The use of SCN-CN and satellite images makes the approach reproducible, and the mixed methods of geographic information system and hydrological model revealed the spatial variability typically hidden in stand-alone hydrological models. The paper recommends further studies with the use of less coarse datasets, as well as the implementation of policies that focus on sustainable urban growth in the region, and other cities.

Author Biographies

T. E. Ologunorisa, Federal University of Technology

Department of Meteorology & Climate Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure; Olusegun
Agagu University of Science & Technology, Okitipupa, Ondo State.

Adebayo Eludoyin, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Department of Geography

I. Bayonle, Federal University of Technology, Akure

Department of Meteorology & Climate Science