Household Solid Waste Generation Patterns and Collection Systems in Urban Tanzania: A Case Study of Morogoro Municipality


  • suma Kibonde University of Dar es Salaam


Urbanization, sustainable development, solid waste, waste collection, public health


This paper examines household solid waste generation patterns and collection systems in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania, utilizing a mixed research design combining quantitative and qualitative methods. A sample of 380 heads of households was randomly selected, and data were collected through surveys, in- depth interviews, and field observation. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, with Chi-square analyses revealing relationships between waste quantities and socio-demographic characteristics. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. The results indicate that food waste constitutes 66% of total waste, with compound sweepings and papers trailing at 20%. Most households (60%) generate 1–3kg of waste daily, yet face significant inconsistencies (74%) in waste collection schedules. Despite the common use of sacks (97%) for waste storage, an underperforming collection system results in uncertainty among residents, leading to roadside dumping. Notably, homeowners produce significantly higher quantities of waste (p<0.001), and larger family household sizes correlate with increased waste generation (p<0.000). The study unveils challenges in waste collection due to inadequate infrastructure and technology, resulting in environmental and health risks from waste accumulation in public areas. Recommendations include: investing in infrastructure and technology to enhance waste collection efficiency, increasing financial allocations through partnerships and grants, and launching public awareness campaigns for improved waste segregation, and adherence to collection schedules. Additionally, promoting sustainable recycling and composting practices is advised.